China's unification and division(Mr. Jung-Sun Kim)-2
by Kim Jung Sun
<Conclusion on China unification is as follows>
It is considered that China pursues the international rule after post cold war based on peace and development and multiple polarization, and on the other hand asserts that the United States imperialism and forced policy threats peace and safety, and an unreasonable and old international economy rule becomes an obstacle in the developing countries.
With the above basis, Chin maintains the following three foreign targets. First, it is needed that China will continue to build an international environment useful for continuously propelling modernization and economy development through the reform and opening which are the highest national work facing China, and second it is needed to prohibit the United States imperialism and the increasing force of the United States and Japan in the East Asia region. China is needed to take an important role and stance in the East Asia region as a powerful nation. Third, China is needed to build a people's unified nation by resolving the Taiwan problems along with the returns of Hong Kong in 1997 and Macao in 1999.
China announced the economy development through reform and opening as the highest national project while forming the international environment useful for achieving the goals.
China is trying to promote a relationship with the United States and neighboring countries in order to achieve the above goals. In addition, China frequently attends various international organizations while agreeing the international rules and systems. China also is expanding a cooperative relationship in order to pursue the common benefits based on the same goal, different existence with respect to the international dispute and conflicts.
First of all, China is currently trying to improve a relationship with the United States since it considers the cooperative relationship with the United States as necessary element in order to continuously develop economy through the reform and opening despite a critical conflict factor with the United States. For example, China maintains a cooperative relationship with the United States with respect to a military security problem such as nuclear weapon expansion prohibition and missile export problem while participating the international security system such as NPT, CTBT, CWC, BWC, etc. and showing a positive posture with respect to military control and human being right and environment protection. China criticizes that the United States and western countries says about the human being right and democracy of China as an internal issue and a peace-faked strategy with respect to China while joining the UN human right protocol and announcing the white report on the human right and recognizing the human right as a common value. Here the peace-faked strategy means that the China-produced socialism is forced to change through the ideology and culture invasion and economic influence expansion and to be part of the western countries.
China maintains one China policy with respect to the Taiwan problem, and protects the weapon export from the United States to Taiwan while preventing the relationship with the United States to be damaged due to the Taiwan problem.
As a foreign policy line of China, the anti-imperialism is based on "three-world policy" by Mao Zedong which is supported from "intermediate region theory" that China opposes two super powers of USA and Soviet union. China set a foreign policy of anti-USA and anti-Soviet union lead by the United States depending on the international political situation in 1960, so China has shown on the international stage with the help of the support from the United States while escaping from the threats from the old Soviet Union.
China recognizes that the United States pursues only the super power nation along with the win in Gulf war after post cold war and that the United States imperialism threats multiple polarization which is considered as a preferred international power system. In addition, China considers that China is to be tied as part of the United States-lead rule while preventing the development of China through "China thread theory" by judging the development of China as a challenge with respect to the imperialistic position of the United States. China deems that the United States imperialism is the biggest threat to the security of China, so the anti-imperialism foreign policy becomes the important target.
The foreign policy of China with respect to the United States imperialism is well shown in the joint announcement between China and Soviet Union made based on a world multiple polarization and a new international rule formation which was announced when the chief secret of Communist party Kang Taek-min visited Soviet Union on May 4, 1997. Here China and Soviet Union announced that the world rule is being multiply polarized, and this phenomenon is positive, and they will try to multiple-polarize the world rule. In addition, they announced that both countries are same members in the international society irrespective of strong and weak power and richness and poorness and announced that no countries pursue imperialism and power politics and conquers international world, which means a distinctive stance with respect to the United States imperialism.
The foreign policy of China which opposes the United States imperialism continues to be shown in the agreements between Vladimir Putin, the president of Soviet Union and Kang Taek-min, the president of China communist party when he visited China on July 2000. At the summit, they agreed to cope with the United States imperialism together and agreed to strongly cope with the United States imperialism and power policy and emphasized the multiple polarization of world rule.
One China policy that China asserts means as follows.
One China policy comes from the legitimacy concerning whether or not a corresponding government inherits the legitimacy of China. China asserts that the People's Republic of China of Beijing government inherits the legitimacy of China from the foundation of People's Republic of China in 1949. So, China asserts that the sovereignty of past China belongs to the Beijing government, and Taiwan is part of the province of China, which does not have any sovereignty.
One nation, two systems that China asserts as a plan for the unification between China and Taiwan means that two systems, socialism and capitalism, concurrently reside in the same sovereignty of People's Republic of China which is only the legal government in China. It does not mean a political body in which two systems are opposite or conflict, but inter-respect system reside between two systems s the system of the socialism under the Chinese constitution becomes main, and two systems of socialism and capitalism develop with each other. Therefore, under one sovereignty based on one nation, two systems, the sovereignty first belongs to China, and Taiwan has a high level authority, but has a self-governing system assigned from the central government of China.
Meanwhile, Taiwan opposes the one nation, two system unification plan suggested by China for the reasons that the one nation, two system plan does not guarantee the equivalent positions between China and Taiwan, namely, according to one nation, two system plan, since Taiwan is considered as a province of China. Therefore, Taiwan suggested another unification plan, called one nation, two governments with respect to the one nation, two system unification plan. Here, the one nation, two governments were suggested in Nation's policy conference of Taiwan held on June 1990, which means that China is one, but two governments of China and Taiwan reside. Two independent government systems reside in one nation. It seems that Taiwan wants to emphasize that Taiwan has the same political level as China.
As described above, Chinese plan and Taiwanese plan between the one nation, two systems principle and one nation, two governments are not narrowed, increasing conflicts. Under the circumference that China pursues one nation, two systems, since Taiwan asserts one nation, two equivalent governments, namely, two-nations plan, no solution is found in resolving the Taiwan problem.
The Taiwan policy of China is directed to achieving the unification in peace based on one nation, two systems along with one China principle. However, China asserts the foreign interference from other countries, specially, the United States, because Taiwan problem belongs to the internal issue of China. Although China continues to try the unification plan, in the end China will use force.
Needless to say, the United States is the biggest political power which has a war prevention power when China invades Taiwan as an external force which might affect the foreign policy of China. The policy change of the United States in view of the Taiwan problem plays a key role in the decision of the foreign policy of China.
There are two main forced streams surrounding the policy with respect to China in the United States after the post cold war. First, there is a soft line asserting an engagement by China. They assert that when the United States keeps a strong stance against China, it might hurt the nation's benefit, so a soft engagement policy is needed. Second, there is another group that asserts a negative stance with respect to an inter-dependency in view of economy. Namely, this group asserts a strong policy against China. This group believes that China currently keeps an international rule for the need of economy development, but in the end after the completion of development, China will invade Taiwan with a strong power along with a military expansion as it did in the past.
In the course of controversy in the United States on the foreign policy against China, the United States continues to maintain the dual-track policy based on the strategic ambiguity in the both-coastal region problem policy.
Concerning the strategic ambiguity, Andrew J. Nathan suggests the following three matters in the strategic ambiguity of the United States concerning the Taiwan problem. First, it is concerned on the defense of Taiwan. The United States has never disclosed any defense plan on Taiwan. The Taiwan Relation Act maintains an ambiguous attitude on whether the United States will supports Taiwan or on what condition the United States will do. Second, it is concerned on the sale of weapon with respect to Taiwan. There is not a clear stance on this matter. Third, it is concerned on the further position of Taiwan. The United States supports one China policy, but does not disclose a clear stance on the further position of Taiwan. On the surface, the United States supports one China policy, but expands a unofficial relationship with Taiwan while maintaining a conventional official relationship with the United States. The United States dual-track policy continues since normalization with China in 1979.
As for China, since the United States wants to keep a relationship with China and Taiwan, the United States tries to enhance a relation development with China, and on the other hand the United States wants to maximize the political, economical and military benefits while maintaining a good relationship with China and Taiwan through the unofficial relationship with Taiwan.
Martin L. Laster says that the United States nation's benefit can be enhanced by means of a tension releasing through the political, economical and relation development of Taiwan which can well match with the ideological concept of the United States in the East Asia region in view of military, security matters of Taiwan.
First, it is concerned about the military, security matter: since the Taiwan strait connects the East North Asia, the East South Asia and the middle Asia, the Taiwan strait might becomes a very important military base of the United States in emergency case.
Second, it is concerned about the political development of Taiwan: Taiwan continues to develop the democracy based on free election system after the military order of 1987, which well matches with the goal of the foreign strategy of the United States. Third, it is concerned about the economy development of Taiwan. Taiwan pursues a civilization in the field of economy, and plan a free development by removing various tariff and non-tariff barriers in the trade relationship with other countries, which might be beneficial to the United States in view that Taiwan becomes one of the international trade system led by the United States. Fourth, it is concerned about the development of both-coastal problems: the both-coastal region problem is greatly developed since the Taiwanese visited the main land allowed after 1987. In view of economy, Taiwan became the second largest trade partner following Hong Kong, and the trade amount between two nations is sharply increasing. In view of the political relationship, the community party and the Kookmin-party keep a newly set policy with respect to the unification, and the political issue between two nations is provided with a flexible situation. Under this circumference, the tension concerning the Taiwan problem between the United States and China will be loosened, which might be advantageous to the United States.
Under the above consumption, the independency movement of Taiwan would bring China to use a military force. In this case, the United States will face a crisis on whether the force will use or not, and when China and Taiwan are unified, the United States might lose all Taiwan cards which might be a certain pressure to both China and Taiwan. The so-called China threat theory would become clear, so the United States tends to maximize the nation's benefit by maintaining the current situations.
The disconnection with Taiwan and the discard of the inter-defense treaty between the United States and Taiwan made the United States worry about the security of Taiwan. The United States passed the Taiwan Relation Act 339 to 85 in the lower house and 85 to 4 in the upper house through the jointed consultation of both houses at the end of March 1979 so as to keep the relation with Taiwan three months after the normalization with China. The president Carter announced the same as Act on April 10 in the same year. The Taiwan Relation Act is characterized in that Taiwan is recovered to the extent before(installation of contact office which is alternative to the embassy), and the peace of Taiwan is maintained for the security of Taiwan, and the defense weapon is to be provided to Taiwan for thereby maintaining a counter force for the security of the United States.
As the Taiwan Relation Act is established, the United States seemed to have started the dual-tract policy based on the strategic ambiguity while normalizing with China and maintaining the relation with Taiwan, which has lasted thereafter.
The dual-track policy based on the strategic ambiguity of the United States was confirmed at the time of crisis of Taiwan strait in 1995-1996. The United States repeatedly expressed that the three-times joint announcement engaged between the United States and China showing one China policy, an Taiwan belong to China which are announced to China at the time of Taiwan crisis will be kept, and as China threats Taiwan with force, the United States dispatched the aircraft carrier showing that the United States did not give up Taiwan, which announcements are Shanghai joint announcement in 1972, the joint announcement at the time of normalizing the relationship between the United States and China in 1979, and the 8.17 joint announcement in 1982(8.17 gazette: the performance and quality of the weapon to be sold from the United States to Taiwan does not exceed the supply standard for a few years after the normalization, and the weapon sale to Taiwan will be gradually decreased, and the problems will be resolved within a certain time period). After that, when the former president Carter had a summit with Kang Taek-min in 1997 in Washington, when the foreign minister of the states, Albright, visited China on April, 1998, and when Clinton visited China in June 6, 1998, the administration of the United States repeatedly emphasized the one China policy and the three No's position with respect to the Taiwan problem to the Chinese government while enhancing a relationship with Taiwan.
The United States maintains a dual-tract policy based on the strategic ambiguity in the matter of the both-coastal policy and shows a strict opposing stance on the use of force with respect to Taiwan by China and the independence of Taiwan which might stimulate China. As the United States showed at the time of the Taiwan strait crisis in 1995-1996, the United States maintains a stern opposition on the use of the force to Taiwan by China, and the United States discloses to the separatist that the Taiwan Relation Act does not include any content for defending Taiwan under any circumference, which means an opposing stance with respect to the independence of Taiwan.
As described above, when reviewing "the unification policy comparison study of the United States and Taiwan", it is true that the China unification is largely dependent on the traditional method conducted at the time of dynastic revolution since the ancient time of China. In the modern history, it seems that China is on the verge of changing into a world economy super power which is not expected in the factor of the dynastic revolution, which comes from the assumption that the political, economical reasons bring the dynastic revolution are based on the critics with respect to the present political system and a new political system to come by a limited number of elites. The elites who pursue the economical benefits in the modern society gather, which of idea is called a public society. The most important economical and social functions among the public society are called a media. The social characteristics of the public society can be analyzed with various factors in which clear factors a change aspect that the information distributes. The change of the information distribution type is called a change of political environment from which human being cannot leave. Since the communication behavior as the total body of the communication of human being produces various economical benefits and can be deemed as part of the political behavior which totally manages the same, so its importance increases. In this aspect, when the members of the political systems become to change from the political behavior to economical values whereas dogmatic communist and socialism as well as capitalism and freedom democracy might change into the random capitalism and democracy.
The procedures of the China unification by means of the nation communist collaboration of China have been changed over dynastic ages for a couple thousands of years. In view of the China revolution, the combination between communist and Chinese tradition is very important factor. Whatever the China unification is by China or Taiwan, the above thing is one of the key reasons with respect to the concept recognition of China unification. As described earlier, the principles of the China communist is not dependent on the Marx and Lenin communism, but is largely dependent on the tradition revolution which frequently happened at the time of dynastic revolution from the ancient China.
Since China is equipped with a large amount of natural environment and historic background like the old Soviet Union, no foreign force invasion will succeed. The above environment might prevent the direct invasion of the United States and Stalin government at the time of nation and communication fight. Therefore, the China revolution was a local revolution by themselves without receiving supports from other countries. In the present article, it is analyzed that the factor of the local revolution is an ignition factor that the world economy aspect brings.
The political and economical reasons which might bring the revolutionary ideology as described earlier have increased the reasons of setting up a new system which can cope with the critics with respect to the conventional system by elites. Part of the remotely localized people(who live in the marginal area of the People's Republic of China) agree with them, and the public will stimulate the people as the freedom democracy spreads based on the world economy change to a new capitalism system. It is certain that the above situation causes a hallucination state like drugs. At this moment, it can be assumed that people admire a paradise with respect to the personal ideology, which might be combined with a communism that is camouflaged with a new European economy having a new value which might influence the conventional meaning with respect to China unification called like the value provision as the world economy power is based on the traditional revolution method generally performed at the time of dynastic revolution from the ancient China(the political power comes from the hole of gun., and the important struggling type in China is war, and all of which are for war). This situation might change and mated with the revolutionary group(fourth international), so the economy super power will appear in other world history, and the China separation might have a turning point. <End>